Pennsylvania State House

Independence Hall
Pennsylvania State House

May 10, 1775 to December 12, 1776
March 12, 1777 to September 18, 1777
July 2, 1778 to June 21, 1783

520 Chestnut Street 
Philadelphia, PA 19106

Pennsylvania State House Independence Hall May 10, 1775 to December 12, 1776 March 12, 1777 to September 18, 1777 July 2, 1778 to June 21, 1783

Pennsylvania State House is located on Chestnut Street between 5th and 6th Streets in Philadelphia. Now known as Independence Hall, this red brick building was built between 1732 and 1753 as the colonial seat for the Province of Pennsylvania.  Edmund Woolley, the builder, designed the building with Andrew Hamilton in its distinctive Georgian style.  Two smaller buildings were added in the construction with City Hall to the east and Congress Hall to the west.  

Pennsylvania State House

May 10, 1775 to December 12, 1776

The Second Continental Congress first convened here on May 10th, 1775.  

In May 1775, Peyton Randolph returned to the Congress at Philadelphia learning of the open rebellion occurring at Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775.[1] The Continental Congress met not in Carpenters Hall, but in complete defiance of the crown, assembled in the Colonial Pennsylvania State House.   Peyton Randolph was re-elected President on May 10th and Delegates began their business after prayer: 

Resolved, That the thanks of the Congress be given to the Reverend Mr. Duché for performing Divine Service, agreeable to the desire of the Congress, and for his excellent Prayer, so well adapted to the present occasion.[2] 

On a most important matter typically overlooked by historians the following resolution was passed on May 11th: 

Resolved, That the Doors be kept shut during the time of business, and that the Members consider themselves under the strongest obligations of honour to keep the Proceedings secret, until the majority shall direct them to be made publick.[3] 

This would lead to the November 9th, 1775 Oath of Allegiance and Secrecy signed by all the members including Delegate George Washington. This veil of secrecy is partly responsible for the loss of detailed records on the debates and committee meetings of the Congress from 1774-1788.

Students and Teachers of US History this is a video of Stanley and Christopher Klos presenting America's Four United Republics Curriculum at the University of Pennsylvania's Wharton School. The December 2015 video was an impromptu capture by a member of the audience of Penn students, professors and guests that numbered about 200. - Click Here for more information

On May 15th Congress authorized Secretary Charles Thomson to hire a Clerk. Timothy Matlack would go on to memorialize many Congressional resolutions by engrossing them in his own hand for the Delegates to sign. His most famous engrossed resolution would be the Declaration of Independence which he prepared in late July 1776 for the Delegates to sign on August 2nd. 

Agreed, that the Secretary be allowed to employ Timothy Matlack as a Clerk, he having first taken an oath or affirmation to keep secret the transactions of the Congress that may be entrusted to him, or may come to his knowledge.[4] 

On May 18th Congress adopted rules of Conduct and acted boldly on the news of Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold success in capturing Fort Ticonderoga.[5] 

The President laid before the Congress some important intelligence he received last night, by express, from New-York, relative to the surprising and taking of Ticonderoga by a detachment from Massachusetts-Bay and Connecticut, which was read. Upon motion, Agreed, That Mr. Brown, who brought the express, be called in to give an account of the disposition of the Canadians, the taking of Ticonderoga, and the importance of that Post; whereupon, he was called in, and having given the necessary information, he withdrew. The Congress taking the matter into consideration came to the following Resolution:Resolved, Whereas, there is indubitable evidence that a design is formed by the British Ministry of making a cruel invasion from the Province of Quebeck upon these Colonies, for the purpose of destroying our lives and liberties, and some steps have actually been taken to carry the said design into execution; and whereas, several inhabitants of the Northern Colonies, residing in the vicinity of Ticonderoga, and immediately exposed to incursions, impelled by a just regard for the defence and preservation of themselves and their Countrymen from such imminent dangers and calamities, have taken possession of that post, in which was lodged a quantity of Cannon and Military Stores that would certainly have been used in the intended invasion of these Colonies; this Congress earnestly recommend it to the Committees of the Cities and Counties of New-York and Albany, immediately to cause the said Cannon and Stores to be removed from Ticonderoga to the south end of Lake George; and, if necessary, to apply to the Colonies of New-Hampshire, Massachusetts-Bay, and Connecticut, for such an additional body of forces as will be sufficient to establish a strong post at that place, and effectually to secure the said Cannon and Stores, or so many of them as it may be judged proper to keep there; and that an exact inventory be taken of all such Cannon and Stores, in order that they may be safely returned, when the restoration of the former harmony between Great Britain and these Colonies, so ardently wished for by the latter, shall render it prudent and consistent with the overruling law of self-preservation.[6] 

President Randolph was required, once again, to leave the Continental Congress on May 231775 because Lord Dunmore of Virginia had called a session of the Assembly, of which he was the Speaker. On June 25, 1775 Thomas Jefferson presented his credentials as a replacement for Peyton Randolph. 

 Henry Middleton declined to serve as President a second time due to ill health. Samuel Adams and his cousin John Adams champion the cause of their wealthy benefactor John Hancock who was elected President on May 25th, 1775.  It is reported by several 19th and 20th Century Hancock biographers that Benjamin Harrison, of Virginia, with Southern warmth and fervency, threw his arms around John Hancock and placed him in the vacant Presidential chair, exclaiming,

We will show Mother Britain how little we care for her by making a Massachusetts man our President, whom she has excluded from pardon and offered a reward for his head [7]
On the "Pennsylvania Side" of Independence Hall, Ranger Ed is holding a document signed by Frederick Muhlenberg issued as Speaker of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives. The partly printed document is on laid paper and is dated September 21st, 1782 at Philadelphia. - For More information please visit NCHC Partners in the Park 2017  

 The 1775 Hancock presidency was quite eventual in the Continental Congress’ history. On June 14, debate opened in Congress on the appointment of Commander-in-Chief of Continental forces. John Hancock made it known to all the delegates that he wanted the high office and as President he expected to be nominated.  He was astounded when his fellow Massachusetts delegate, John Adams, moved to appoint George Washington:
“Accordingly When congress had assembled I rose in my place and in as short a Speech as the Subject would admit, represented the State of the Colonies, the Uncertainty in the Minds of the People, their great Expectations and Anxiety, the distresses of the Army, the danger of its dissolution, the difficulty of collecting another, and the probability that the British Army would take Advantage of our delays, march out of Boston and spread desolation as far as they could go. I concluded with a Motion in form that Congress would Adopt the Army at Cambridge and appoint a General, that though this was not the proper time to nominate a General, yet as I had reason to believe this was a point of the greatest difficulty, I had no hesitation to declare that I had but one Gentleman in my Mind for that important command, and that was a Gentleman from Virginia who was among Us and very well known to all of Us, a Gentleman whose Skill and Experience as an Officer, whose independent fortune, great Talents and excellent universal Character, would command the Approbation of all America, and unite the cordial Exertions of all the Colonies better than any other Person in the Union. Mr. Washington, who happened to sit near the Door, as soon as he heard me allude to him, from his Usual Modesty darted into the Library Room. Mr. Hancock, who was our President, which gave me an Opportunity to observe his Countenance, while I was speaking.”[8]

On June 17th, 1775 the Continental Congress passed the following resolution appointing George Washington as Commander-In-Chief:
Resolved unanimously upon the question, Whereas, the delegates of all the colonies, from Nova-Scotia to Georgia, in Congress assembled, have unanimously chosen George Washington, Esq. to be General and commander in chief, of such forces as are, or shall be, raised for the maintenance and preservation of American liberty; this Congress doth now declare, that they will maintain and assist him, and adhere to him, the said George Washington, Esqr., with their lives and fortunes in the same cause.[9]
On July 6, 1775, Congress passed the resolution, "Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms," which, rejected independence but asserted that Americans were ready to die rather than be enslaved. In this resolution that justified it war with Great Britain, the United Colonies Continental Congress openly invoked their Christian God stating:
“Our cause is just. Our union is perfect. Our internal resources are great, and, if nec­essary, foreign assistance is undoubtedly attainable. -- We gratefully acknowledge, as signal instances of the Divine favour towards us, that his Providence would not per­mit us to be called into this severe controversy, until we were grown up to our present strength, had been previously exercised in warlike operation, and possessed of the means of defending ourselves. With hearts fortified with these animating reflections, we most solemnly, before God and the world, declare, that, exerting the utmost energy of those powers, which our beneficent Creator hath graciously bestowed upon us, the arms we have been compelled by our enemies to assume, we will, in defiance of every hazard, with unabating firmness and perseverence, employ for the preservation of our liberties; being with one mind resolved to die freemen rather than to live slaves.” [10]

[1] The Battles of Lexington and Concord were the first military engagements of the Revolutionary War. They were fought on April 19, 1775, in Middlesex County, Province of Massachusetts Bay, within the towns of Lexington, Concord, Lincoln, Menotomy, and Cambridge, just outside Boston.
[2] Journals of the Continental Congress, May 10, 1775
[3] Journals of the Continental Congress, May 11, 1775
[4] Journals of the Continental Congress, May 15, 1775
[5] Fort Ticonderoga was constructed during the French and Indian War at the south end of Lake Champlain, NY where a short traverse provides access to Lake George.  The waterways were used as 18th Century trade routes between the Hudson River Valley and Saint Lawrence River Valley. The name "Ticonderoga" (Iroquois word - tekontaróken) means "it is at the junction of two waterways".
[6] Journals of the Continental Congress, May 18, 1775
[7] Pressey, Park, A Vocational Reader: Rand McNally and Company, New York, 1916,  page 106
[8] Adams, John. John Adams autobiography, part 1, "John Adams," through 1776. Part 1 is comprised of 53 sheets and 1 insertion; 210 pages total. Original manuscript from the Adams Family Papers, Massachusetts Historical Society. Page 4
[9] Journals of the Continental Congress, Resolution for Commander-in-Chief, June 17th, 1775
[10] Journals of the Continental Congress, Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms, July 6, 1775

Second Continental Congress Pennsylvania State House Legislation: 

On May 10, 1775 the Continental Congress reelects Peyton Randolph as President and Charles Thomson as Secretary May 17 Resolves to ban exports to British colonies failing to join the Association. May 18 Receives news of the capture of Ticonderoga and Crown Point. May 24 Elects John Hancock president of the Continental Congress. May 26 Resolves to send a second petition to the king and to put "these colonies . . . into a state of defence." June 1 Resolves against an "expedition or incursion" into Canada. June 2 Receives Massachusetts proposal to take up civil government. June 7 Resolves to observe July 20 as a Fast Day. June 9 Endorses assumption of civil authority in Massachusetts by the provincial convention. June 10 Resolves to organize a Continental Army. June 15 Appoints George Washington Commander-in-Chief of the army. June 22 Resolves to emit $2 million in Continental currency. June 27 Approves invasion of Canada. July 5 Approves petition to the king. July 6 Approves "Declaration on Taking Arms." July 8 Approves address to inhabitants of Great Britain. July 12 Organizes three departments for Indian affairs. July 21 Ignores Benjamin Franklin's proposed Articles of Confederation. July 27 Resolves to establish a system of military hospitals. July 31 Adopts response to Lord North's Conciliatory Resolution. August 2 Adjourns to September 5th. 

September 13 Archives quorum and reconvenes; Georgia fully represented for first time. September 19 Appoints Secret Committee to purchase military supplies abroad. September 22 Appoints committee to consider "the state of the trade of America." September 27 Orders publication of corrected journals of Congress. September 29 Appoints Committee of Conference to confer with General Washington and various New England executives. October 3 Receives Rhode Island proposal for building an American fleet. October 5 Recommends to General Washington a plan to intercept British supply ships. October 6 Recommends that provincial governments arrest persons deemed a danger to "the liberties of America." October 7 Adopts report on fortification of the Hudson River October 13 Resolves to fit out armed vessels; appoints Naval Committee. October 17 Appoints John Morgan director general of hospitals, replacing Benjamin Church upon his arrest for correspondence with the enemy; appoints committee to estimate damages inflicted by British arms. October 24 Adjourns to attend funeral of Peyton Randolph. October 26 Publishes resolution authorizing exports in exchange for arms. October 30 Increases naval authorization and expands Naval Committee. November 1 Reaffirms general embargo on exports, extended explicitly to March 1, 1776; commends provincial authorities for ignoring parliamentary trade exemptions designed to undermine American unity. November 2 Appoints Committee to the Northward to confer with General Schuyler; receives report of Committee of Conference. November 3 Recommends formation of new provincial government in New Hampshire. November 4 Adopts resolutions for reconstitution of General Washington's army in Massachusetts, and for defense of South Carolina and Georgia. November 9 Adopts new oath of secrecy; publishes report of king's refusal to receive Olive Branch Petition. November 10 Adopts plan for promoting manufacture of salt petre; orders enlistment of first two battalions of marines. November 13 Orders publication of new "Rules and Regulations" for Continental Army. November 15 Receives account of capture of St. Johns. November 16 Adopts resolves to improve delegates' attendance in Congress. November 17 Adopts regulations pertaining to prisoners of war. November 22 Authorizes exemptions to ban on exports to Bermuda. November 23 Adopts resolves to improve peaceful relations with the Six Nations. November 25 Adopts regulations pertaining to prize cases. November 28 Adopts "Rules for the Regulation of the Navy of the United Colonies"; adopts measures for the defense of North Carolina. November 29 Appoints Committee of Secret Correspondence; resolves to emit $3,000,000 in Continental currency; receives account of capture of Montreal. December 2 Sends Benjamin Harrison to Maryland to promote defense of the Chesapeake. December 4 Recommends formation of new provincial government in Virginia; appoints committee to dissuade New Jersey Assembly from separately petitioning king. December 6 Publishes response to king's August 23 proclamation declaring colonies in state of rebellion. December 8 Resolves to confine John Connolly for plotting with Lord Dunmore against western Virginia. December 13 Authorizes construction of 13 ships for Continental Navy. December 14 Appoints Marine Committee. December 15 Receives plan for creation of committee to sit during recess of Congress. December 20 Recommends cessation of hostilities between Connecticut and Pennsylvania settlers in Wyoming Valley. December 22 Authorizes an attack on Boston; appoints Esek Hopkins commander in chief of Continental Navy. December 26 Adopts plan for redemption of Continental bills of credit. December 29 Adopts resolutions for importing and manufacturing salt. December 30 Recommends Secret Committee negotiations with Pierre Penet and Emanuel de Pliarne for European arms and ammunition.  

Independence Hall with Ranger Jay holding the September 1787, American Museum printing of the U.S. Constitution and Ranger Ed Welch holding John Dunlap's 1776 Journals of Congress opened, respectively to the U.S. Constitution of 1787 and Declaration of Independence. They are flanked by National Collegiate Honors Council Students and NCHC President, Dr. Naomi Yavneh Klos. - For More information please visit NCHC Partners in the Park 2017  
January 2, 1776 Recommends "the reduction of St. Augustine." January 3 Recommends a quarantine of Queens County, N.Y., for refusal to send deputies to the New York Convention. January 6 Adopts regulations for the division of marine prizes. January 8 Orders reinforcements to Canada; receives news of the king's speech from the throne (October 27, 1775) and of the destruction of Norfolk, Va. January 11 Resolves that any person refusing to accept Continental currency "shall be. . . treated as an enemy of his country. " January 16 Limits black recruitment to the reenlistment of "free negroes who have served faithfully in the army at Cambridge. " January 17 Receives news of General Montgomery's defeat at Quebec; appoints a committee to prepare regulations for opening American ports on March 1, 1776. January 19 Orders additional reinforcements to Canada in response to General Montgomery's defeat. January 24 Orders publication of a public statement on the repulse at Quebec and of a new "Letter to the Inhabitants of the Province of Canada." January 25 Orders preparation of a monument and delivery of a funeral oration in tribute to the memory of General Montgomery. January 26 Appoints a committee "to repair to New York, to consult and advise ... respecting the immediate defense of the said city." January 27 Directs the Secret Committee to import goods for use of the commissioners of Indian affairs "in order to preserve the friendship and confidence of the Indians." January 31 Forbids enlistment of prisoners of war. February 5 Recommends that additional efforts be made to instruct and convert the Indians. February 13 Exempts intercolonial trade in naval stores from general trade restrictions; tables draft "address to the inhabitants of these Colonies." February 15 Appoints a committee to proceed to Canada to promote support for the American cause. February 17 Appoints the Treasury Committee; resolves to emit additional $4 million; appoints General Charles Lee to the Canadian command. February 23 Appoints committees to promote the manufacture of firearms and the production of saltpetre, sulphur, and powder. February 26 Prohibits sailing of vessels loaded for Great Britain, Ireland, or the British West Indies. February 27 Establishes separate military departments for the middle and southern colonies. February 29 Receives General Washington's letter on Lord Drummond's peace mission. March 1 Appoints General Charles Lee to command of the southern department. March 2 Committee of Secret Correspondence appoints Silas Deane agent to France to transact business "commercial and political." March 4 Removes the sailing ban on vessels loaded for Great Britain, Ireland, or the British West Indies and desiring to import arms and ammunition. March 6 Appoints General John Thomas to the Canadian command. March 9 Appoints a committee to study the "state of the colonies in the southern department"; denies military officers authority to impose test oaths. March 14 Adopts resolves on defending New York and disarming the "notoriously disaffected" in all the colonies. March 16 Declares May 17 "a day of humiliation, fasting, and prayer. " March 20 Adopts instructions for the commissioners appointed to go to Canada. March 23 Adopts a declaration and resolutions on privateering, subjecting British ships to seizure as lawful prizes. March 25 Adopts a report on augmenting the defenses of the southern department. March 27 Attends the funeral of Samuel Ward. April 1 Establishes the Treasury Office. April 2 Commends General Washington and his troops for conducting the successful siege and forcing the evacuation of Boston. April 3 Adopts "Instructions" for privateers. April 6 Opens the trade of the colonies "to any parts of the world which are not under the dominion of the [King of Great Britain]"; prohibits the importation of slaves. April 11 Delivers a speech to Captain White Eyes of the Delaware Indians. April 15 Urges cultivation of harmony between the Connecticut and Pennsylvania settlers in the Wyoming Valley. April 16 Requests the Maryland Council of Safety to arrest Governor William Eden. April 23 Appoints Continental "agents for prizes in the several colonies"; instructs the commissioners to Canada "to publish an Address to the people of Canada." April 29 Instructs a committee "to prepare a plan of an expedition against Fort Detroit." April 30 Appoints the Indian Affairs Committee. May 6 Postpones prescribing procedures for receiving peace commissioners rumored to be en route to America; resolves to raise $10 million "for the purpose of carrying on the war for the current year" and appoints a "ways and means" committee. May 9 Resolves to emit an additional $5 million. May 10 Recommends that the colonies "adopt such government as shall, in the opinion of the representatives of the people, best conduce to the happiness and safety of their constituents." May 15 Adopts a preamble to its May 10 resolution on establishing new governments, asserting the necessity of suppressing "the exercise of every kind of authority" under the British crown. May 16 Requests General Washington's presence in Philadelphia to consult on forthcoming campaign. May 17 Adjourns to observe Fast Day. May 21 Receives news of George III's negotiations for nearly 17,000 German mercenaries to be sent to America. May 22 Adopts measures to bolster American forces in Canada; resolves to emit additional $5 million in bills of credit. May 24 Begins consultations with Generals Washington, Gates, and Mifflin on forthcoming campaign. May 25 Resolves "that it is highly expedient to engage the Indians in the service of the United Colonies." May 27 Holds audience with deputies of the Six Nations; receives instructions directed to the North Carolina and Virginia delegates pertaining to independence. June 1 Requests 6,000 militia reinforcements for Canada. June 3 Requests nearly 24,000 militia reinforcements for General Washington at New York. June 7 Receives Richard Henry Lee's resolution respecting independence, foreign alliances, and confederation. June 10 Postpones debate on independence resolution; appoints committee to prepare a declaration of independence (the members of the Committee of Five were appointed; they were: John Adams of Massachusetts, Roger Sherman of Connecticut, Robert Livingston of New York, Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania, and Thomas Jefferson of Virginia). June 11 Receives Indian delegation; receives report from commissioners to Canada. June 12 Resolved, That the committee to prepare and digest the form of a confederation to be entered into between these colonies, consist of a member from each colony: New Hampshire Josiah Bartlett, Massachusetts Mr. Samuel Adams, Rhode Island Stephen Hopkins, Connecticut Roger Sherman, New York Robert R. Livingston, New Jersey [no named delegate], Pennsylvania John Dickinson, Delaware Mr. Thomas McKean, Maryland Mr. Thomas Stone, Virginia Mr. Thomas Nelson, North Carolina Mr. Joseph Hewes, South Carolina Edward Rutledge and Georgia Button Gwinnett. And "a plan of treaties to be proposed to foreign powers" members chosen, John  Dickinson,  Benjamin Franklin, John Adams,  Benjamin Harrison, and  Robert Morris; creates Board of War and Ordnance. June 14 Recommends "detecting, restraining, and punishing disaffected and dangerous persons" in New York; embargoes salt beef and pork. June 17 Adopts general reform of the forces in Canada. June 19 Recommends seizure and confinement of Gov. William Franklin. June 21 Orders inquiry into the causes of miscarriages in Canada. June 24 Adopts resolves on allegiance and treason and recommends legislation for punishing counterfeiters in the several colonies; suspends enlistment of Mohegan and Stockbridge Indians. June 26 Adopts bounty for three-year enlistments. June 28  Reads draft declaration of independence

 Resolution for Independency which was passed on July 2, 1776.   

July 2 Declares independence with only New York abstaining. July 4 Adopts Declaration of Independence with only New York abstaining; prepares mobilization for the defense of New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. July 8 Clarifies jurisdictions of northern commanders Gates and Schuyler; augments Washington's discretionary powers and commissary general's authority. July 10 Denounces British treatment of prisoners captured at the Cedars in Canada. July 12 Reads and orders printing of draft Articles of Confederation. July 17 Adopts "rules and orders for the government of this house." July 18 Reads draft "plan of treaties to be entered into with foreign states." July 19 Orders publication of Lord Howe's commission and correspondence to expose false expectations for a negotiated peace. July 20 Commends commanders of the American victory at Charleston. July 22 Adopts procedures for negotiating prisoner exchange; authorizes emission of additional $5 million in bills of credit; opens debate on Articles of Confederation. July 24 Broadens regulations for confiscating British goods on the high seas. July 26 Orders publication of an account of a conference between General Washington and a representative of Lord Howe. July 30 Recommends southern expedition against Cherokees; adopts sundry resolves in response to report on the miscarriages in Canada. August 2 Delegates sign engrossed Declaration of Independence; Congress authorizes employment of the Stockbridge Indians. August 6 Proposes general prisoner-of-war exchange. August 8 Orders General Lee to return to Philadelphia from Charleston; concludes three-week debate on Articles of Confederation. August 12 Holds inquiry into conduct of Commodore Esek Hopkins. August 13 Opens debate on revision of articles of war. August 14 Adopts plan for encouraging desertion of foreign mercenaries. August 15 Rebukes Commodore Esek Hopkins.5 August 16 Censures Commodore Esek Hopkins. August 19 Orders Commodore Hopkins to resume command of Continental fleet; adopts extensive new instructions for Indian commissioners in middle department. August 20 Reads draft Articles of Confederation and orders them printed in preparation for debate in committee of the whole. August 23 Authorizes additional troops on Continental establishment for frontier defense. August 26 Adopts measures for relief of disabled soldiers and seamen. August 27 Resolves to encourage foreign mercenaries to desert from British army. August 30 Adopts plan to improve postal system. September 3 Receives General John Sullivan's written report on Lord Howe's proposal for peace conference. September 6 Designates Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and Edward Rutledge to meet with Lord Howe. September 9 Revises style of Continental commissions, replacing "United Colonies" with "United States." September 11 Committee meets with Lord Howe on Staten Island. September 16 Adopts new plan for a Continental Army of 88 battalions and system of bounties for recruitment of officers and soldiers. September 17 Adopts Plan of Treaties; receives report of the committee appointed to confer with Lord Howe and orders it published. September 20 Adopts Articles of War. September 22 Sends committee to New York "to enquire into the state of the army." September 25 Resolves to send committee to Ticonderoga to improve administration of northern army. September 26 Appoints Silas Deane, Benjamin Franklin, and Thomas Jefferson as commissioners at Paris. September 28 Adopts "letters of credence" for commissioners at Paris and plan for their maintenance. October 1 Appoints Thomas Mifflin as quartermaster general to replace Stephen Moylan; appoints committee to bring in plan for military academy. October 2 Refuses to accept General Philip Schuyler's resignation as commander of northern department. October 3 Resolves to borrow $5 million and establishes system of loan offices to transact the business. October 7 Receives General Charles Lee's personal report on southern department and advances $30,000 indemnity to him for loss of property in England. October 9 Appoints John Morgan and William Shippen, Jr., director of military hospitals "on the east side of Hudson's river" and in New Jersey, respectively. October 14 Accepts the report of the committee on the appeal of the libel case Joshua Wentworth v. the Elizabeth from the maritime court of New Hampshire. October 18 Appoints Thaddeus Kosciuszko colonel of engineers in Continental Army. October 22 Appoints Arthur Lee to replace Jefferson as commissioner at Paris; instructs commissioners to pro cure eight line-of-battle ships in France. October 28 Appoints committee to conduct inquiry into monopolizing and engrossing of military supplies. October 30 Rejects Maryland proposal to substitute money for land as an additional bounty; adopts new formula for division of prize money in Continental Navy. November 2 Resolves to emit additional $5 million. November 6 Resolves to appoint naval board in Philadelphia "to execute the business of the navy, under the direction of the Marine Committee." November 11 Directs Board of War to confer with Pennsylvania Council of Safety on defense of Philadelphia. November 15 Adopts new pay plan for Continental Navy. November 18 Adopts lottery scheme to raise Continental funds. November 20 Resolves to enlarge navy by eight additional ships. November 23 Receives news of evacuation of Fort Lee and British crossing of Hudson River. November 25 Urges Pennsylvania to mobilize militia for six-week emergency. December 1 Holds emergency Sunday session; authorizes General Washington to order troops from east of Hudson River to west side. December 5 Hears address of Indian delegation. December 8 Holds emergency Sunday session. December 11 Proclaims day of fasting and humiliation; instructs General Washington to contradict report that Congress was preparing to adjourn from Philadelphia. December 12 Adjourns to Baltimore; leaves General Israel Putnam to direct defense of Philadelphia

Pennsylvania State House
March 4, 1777 to September 18, 1777

After General Washington’s victories at Trenton and Princeton, the British re-fortified their lines in New Jersey and abandoned their plans to occupy Philadelphia.  A road weary Continental Congress returned to the Pennsylvania State House on March 4, 1777.

U.S. Continental Congress Pennsylvania State House Legislation: 

March 5-11, 1777 Fails to attain quorum; on March 11 urges Delaware and New York to dispatch delegates to Congress. March 12 Reconvenes. March 13 Cautions agents abroad against recruiting foreign officers with limited English language skills; appoints committee "to confer with General Gates upon the general state of affairs." March 15 Reprimands General Schuyler for comments "highly derogatory to the honor of Congress." March 17-18 Adjourns for lack of a quorum-only eight states represented. March 19 Appoints committee on applications of foreign officers for military appointments; declines Baron de Kalb's offer of service. March 21 Appoints committee to confer with Gen. Nathanael Greene. March 22 Establishes and specifies the organization and duties of the office of secretary of Congress. March 24 Informs General Washington that Congress never intended him to feel bound by a majority in a council of war contrary to his own judgment. March 25 Urges Virginia to suspend operations planned against her western Indians; directs General Gates to take command of the army at Fort Ticonderoga; appoints William C. Houston deputy secretary of Congress. March 26 Suspends Esek Hopkins from his command of the Continental Navy. March 29 Reaffirms decision not to send a delegation to confer with General Lee. April 1 Adopts plan for "better regulating the pay of the army." April 4 Adopts commissary reforms recommended by General Greene. April 7 Adopts plan to reorganize the medical department. April 8 Adopts proposals to honor the memory of Generals Joseph Warren and Hugh Mercer. April 10 Orders measures for the defense of the western frontiers and appoints General Edward Hand to the command at Fort Pitt. April 11 Appoints William Shippen, Jr., director general of military hospitals and a new staff of physicians and surgeons general. April 14 Adopts measures to improve recruiting and revises Articles of War. April 16 Urges Rhode Island, Massachusetts, and Connecticut to attack the British forces at Rhode Island. April 18 Resolves to publish report on depredations; appoints committee to conduct inquiry into General Schuyler's command. April 21 Resumes debate on Articles of Confederation. April 22 Orders William Franklin into close confinement in retaliation for his urging Americans to seek royal pardons. April 25 Orders measures for reinforcing and mobilizing General Washington's army. April 29 Congress orders Major General St. Clair to take measures for the defense of Lake Champlain and Ticonderoga. April 30 Appoints committee to evaluate the consequences of the British raid on Danbury; adopts quartermaster and commissary general reforms. May 1 Considers possible hostilities against Portugal; appoints Arthur Lee commissioner to Spain. May 3 Exonerates General Philip Schuyler from charges of misusing public funds. May 5 Debates Articles of Confederation. May 7 Appoints Ralph Izard commissioner to Tuscany. May 9 Appoints William Lee commissioner to Berlin and Vienna. May 14 Debates reorganization of the quartermaster department. May 20 Resolves to emit an additional $5 million. May 22 Appoints Gen. Philip Schuyler to command of the northern department. May 29 Considers draft address to the inhabitants of the United States. June 3 Appoints committee to oversee the defense of Pennsylvania. June 4 Empowers General Washington to offer rewards to encourage British desertions. June 6 Directs Secret Committee and Marine Committee to make an accounting of their proceedings and expenditures. June 10 Reorganizes the commissary department. June 11 Receives committee report on "ways and means for defraying the expence of the current year." 

June 14th, 1777, United States Flag Resolution  from the first printing of ''Journals of Congress Containing The Proceedings In The Year, 1777 Published by Order of Congress by John Dunlap: Philadelphia: 1778.”    The Journals of the Congress, from which this Flag Act is displayed, formed the only central record of the colonies and the subsequent states”. Printed by order of Congress, this official account is printed by John Dunlap, who in addition to issuing the first publication of the Declaration of Independence, was one of “the principal printers to Congress”. The Journal exhibited covers the entire year of 1777 and includes the important final text of the Articles of Confederation, the first written constitution of the United States. In 1777 the continental Congress ordered only 300 copies of the final revised Articles: “the printed copies of the Articles, in the form of a 26-page pamphlet, were delivered to the president of Congress on 28 November… With each state receiving only 18 copies of the Articles, printers in many states were prompted to create their own copies of the document” in late 1777 and early 1778. All of the early printings of the Articles of Confederation are extraordinarily rare and desirable. The first official Congressional printing, the 1777 Lancaster pamphlet, is virtually unobtainable. This first edition of the Dunlap Journals for the year 1777 (printed in early 1778) would be the second official Congressional printing of the final text of the Articles of Confederation, the signal document governing the United States of America from 1781 (when its ratification was completed) until the enactment of the Constitution of 1787 on March 4, 1789. - image courtesy of the Klos Yavneh Academy Collection 
On June 14, 1777 the Continental Congress resolved “…that the flag of the thirteen United States be of thirteen stripes, alternate red and white; and that the union be thirteen stars, white, in a blue field, representing a new constellation.” disciplines Deputy Muster Master Gunning Bedford for issuing a challenge to delegate Jonathan Dickinson Sergeant for remarks made in Congress. June 17 Memorializes General David Wooster for bravery during the defense of Danbury, Conn. June 18 Orders George Morgan to convene an Indian conference at Fort Pitt. June 23 Resumes debate on Articles of Confederation; hears New York complaint against inhabitants of "the New Hampshire Grants." June 30 Rebuffs movement to establish Vermont statehood. July 1 Adopts instructions for commissioners to Vienna, Berlin, and Tuscany. July 3 Adopts instructions for the commissioner to the United Provinces; dispatches troops to suppress Delaware and Maryland loyalists. July 5 Creates Committee of Commerce to replace the Secret Committee. July 7 Condemns Generals Greene, Knox, and Sullivan for an "attempt to influence" Congress. July 11 Appoints committee to proceed to camp "to make a diligent enquiry into the state of the army." July 14 Receives news of the retreat from Ticonderoga and Mount Independence. July 16 Appoints committee to confer with the French officer du Coudray on his "agreement" with Commissioner Silas Deane. July 23 Dismisses 12 naval officers to make an "example" of "combinations of officers to extort increase of pay and allowances." July 25 Appoints committee to study the defense of the southern frontier; commends Colonels Barton and Meigs for "enterprize and valour" in capturing General Prescott and conducting an expedition on Long Island. July 29 Orders an inquiry into the evacuation of Ticonderoga and Mount Independence. July 31 Commissions the Marquis de Lafayette a major general. August 1 Begins inquiry into Commissioner Silas Deane's contracts with foreign officers. August 4 Appoints General Horatio Gates to replace General Philip Schuyler as commander of the northern department. August 5 Begins consideration of Committee to Camp report on the "state of the army." August 7 Directs General Washington "to negotiate an exchange of prisoners with the enemy." August 8 Records first roll call vote on motion to promote Brigadier General Benedict Arnold. August 11 Directs implementation of General Washington's proposals for defense of the Delaware. August 15 Agrees to accept parole of prominent Pennsylvania dissidents seeking to avoid exile to Virginia. August 20 Directs mustering of the Pennsylvania militia; dispatches New Jersey militia to New York to relieve troops for frontier defense. August 21 Endorses General Washington's proposal to march his main army toward the Hudson River; receives news of American victory at Bennington, Vt. August 22 Learns of British invasion of the Chesapeake; alerts Washington to the British threat to Philadelphia and issues call for the Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia militia. August 26 Requests Pennsylvania and Delaware to apprehend and disarm the "notoriously disaffected" within their states. August 28 Reverses decision to parole prominent Pennsylvania dissidents and orders their removal from the state. September 1 Orders inquiry into the failure of General John Sullivan's expedition against Staten Island. September 4 Orders further call-up of Pennsylvania and New Jersey militia. September 6 Directs clothier general to provide clothing bounties to troops. September 8 Rebukes Silas Deane for exceeding his authority in negotiating agreements with foreign officers in France. September 9 Orders General Washington to write Congress at least twice daily "advising the position and movements of the armies." September 10 Adopts "ways and means" motion to pay interest accruing on loan office certificates in bills of exchange on the commissioners at Paris. September 11 Learns of the American defeat at Brandywine Creek. September 12 Directs Gen. Israel Putnam to reinforce Washington's army. September 14 Orders General Sullivan's recall until the inquiry ordered into his conduct is completed; resolves to convene in Lancaster, Pa., if the evacuation of Philadelphia becomes necessary. September 15 Orders investigation of a conspiracy rumored to be impending in Pennsylvania. September 16 Grants General Washington broad powers to punish military officers and to impress supplies for the army; orders removal of supplies from Philadelphia September 18 Evacuates Philadelphia.

Pennsylvania State House
July 19, 1778 to February 28, 1781

Henry Laurens on July 15th wrote this to Rawlins Lowdens discussing the conditions of the Pennsylvania Statehouse and the need for Congress to utilize the College of Philadelphia for its meetings:

On that day I left York Town and arrived here the 30th-from various impediments I could not collect a sufficient number of States to form a Congress earlier than the 7th Instant; one was the offensiveness of the air in and around the State House, which the Enemy had made an Hospital and left it in a condition disgraceful to the Character of civility. Particularly they had opened a large square pit near the House, a receptacle for filth, into which they had also cast dead horses and the bodies of Men who by the mercy of death had escaped from their further cruelties. I cannot proceed to a new subject before I add a curse on their savage practices.
Congress in consequence of this disappointment have been shuffling from Meeting House to College Hall the last seven days & have not performed half the business which might and ought to have been done, in a more commodious situation. [1]
By July 19th, 1778 the Pennsylvania State House was put into good repair enabling both the United States Continental Congress and the Pennsylvania Supreme Council to meet as their members mandated.

[1] Edmund Cody Burnett, , Letters Of Members Of The Continental Congress, The Carnegie institution of Washington, 1926, p. 333.

U.S. Continental Congress Pennsylvania State House Legislation: 

July 23 Orders inventory of goods left in Philadelphia at the time of the British evacuation; receives Jean Holker's commissions as French marine agent and consul in Philadelphia. July 25 Defers attack on Fort Detroit; adopts measures for Pennsylvania and New York frontier defense. July 30 Emits additional $5 million in Continental currency. July 31 Appoints committee to "superintend an entertainment" for the French minister August 1 Consigns tobacco for payment of Beaumarchais' contract claims. August 3 Investigates commissaries Benjamin Flower and Cornelius Sweers for fraud. August 6 Holds formal audience with French minister Gerard. August 7 Debates proposal to discipline board of war members for disregarding an order of Congress. August 10 Postpones proposal to exchange former New Jersey governor William Franklin for Delaware president John McKinly. August 11 Adopts declaration denouncing peace commissioner George Johnstone for attempted bribery of American leaders. August 13 Curtails issuance of passes for travel to British occupied New York; orders Silas Deane to at tend Congress. August 15 Orders Silas Deane to prepare an oral report on his mission to France; adopts resolution for maintaining the secrecy of correspondence of the committee for foreign affairs. August 17 Hears Silas Deane's testimony; receives resignation of Major General Thomas Mifflin. August 20 Refers report on the inspector general's department to Washington; rejects motion to exchange William Franklin for John McKinly. August 21 Orders printing of the proceedings of General Charles Lee's court-martial; hears Silas Deane conclude "the general account" of his mission to France. August 24 Orders the release of commissary Benjamin Flowers and the prosecution of deputy commissary Cornelius Sweers. August 28 Receives news of failure of the Franco-American attack on Newport. August 31 Adopts measures to improve recruitment of the Continental Army. September 1 Refers passport application of British secret agent John Temple to the state of Pennsylvania. September 2 Recommends granting exemptions to the provisions embargo. September 3 Resolves to permit recruitment of German mercenary deserters; postpones expedition planned against Seneca Indians. September 5 Ignores appeal of secret British agent Dr. John Berkenhout for release from Pennsylvania jail; emits additional $5 million in continental currency. September 9 Votes thanks to General John Sullivan for the conduct of his forces at Rhode Island; orders Rhode Island expedition inquiry September 11 Authorizes dispersal of General John Burgoyne's Convention Army for its more convenient subsistence; urges Maryland to curb evasions of the embargo. September 14 Appoints Benjamin Franklin Minister Plenipotentiary to France; approves exchange of William Franklin for John McKinly. September 19 Reads committee of finance report; orders finance report printed. September 22 Orders examination of William Carmichael on the activities of Silas Deane in France. September 25 Appeals to Virginia and North Carolina to aid South Carolina and Georgia; appoints Benjamin Lincoln to command the southern department. September 26 Reorganizes the offices of the treasury; emits an additional $10 million in Continental currency. September 28 Conducts examination of William Carmichael. September 30 Conducts examination of William Carmichael; reassigns Casimir Pulaski's legion. October 2 Extends embargo to January 31, 1779; requests states to seize provisions to prevent engrossing and speculation. October 3 Informs Casimir Pulaski "that it is the duty of every military officer in the service of these states, to yield obedience" to the laws of the states. October 5 Conducts examination of William Carmichael on the activities of Silas Deane in France. October 6 Invites Dr. Richard Price to become a citizen and move to the United States to assist "in regulating their finances." October 8 Lifts limitations on the price of silver and gold. October 12 Adopts resolves to suppress "theatrical entertainments, horse racing, gaming, and such other diversions as are productive of idleness, [and] dissipation." October 13 Orders Washington to take measures for frontier defense. October 14 Receives documents from Silas Deane and schedules continuation of inquiry into charges made against him. October 15 Receives intelligence of the distribution of a "Manifesto and Proclamation" from the British peace commissioners. October 16 Orders seizure of persons attempting to distribute "manifestoes" of the British commissioners; orders removal of the Convention Army to Charlottesville, Va. October 17 Commends Comte d'Estaing for his attempts to assist the forces of the United States. October 21 Orders arrest of British commissary of prisoners in Philadelphia; declares opposition to "partial and parole exchanges" of prisoners of war in favor of "a general exchange"; commends the Marquis de Lafayette and declares thanks to the king of France. October 22 Assigns Horatio Gates to command of the eastern department; adopts instructions for the American minister to France and a "Plan of an Attack upon Quebec." October 26 Appoints a committee to prepare a publication on "matters relating to" negotiations with the British peace commissioners. October 27 Responds to the Governor of Havana for his introduction of Juan de Miralles, unofficial Spanish agent to the United States. October 29 Reorganizes the Board of War. October 30 Adopts a "Manifesto" vowing to take "exemplary vengeance" against future acts of enemy barbarity. October 31 Rejects proposal from the Spanish Governor of New Orleans for an attack on West Florida. November 2 Authorizes an attack on East Florida. November 3 Appoints a comptroller, auditor, treasurer, and commissioners of accounts for the reorganized treasury office. November 4 Orders printing of the Franco-American treaties; resolves to emit additional $10,000,000 in Continental currency. November 7 Orders December 30 set apart as "A Day Of General Thanksgiving"; reaches compromise in dispute over provisioning prisoners of war. November 10 Augments plans for an expedition against East Florida. November 11 Exempts embargoed flour purchased in Virginia for the French navy. November 12 Denies John Connolly's plea to be treated as a prisoner of war because of parole violations. November 14 Adopts incentives for naval enlistments. November 17 Orders closer confinement of John Connolly; adopts thanksgiving day resolve. November 19 Authorizes Washington to appoint commissioners to negotiate a prisoner exchange; receives ThomasMcKean's charges against General William Thompson. November 20 Hears General Thompson's denial of ThomasMcKean's charges. November 23 Examines witnesses in McKean-Thompson dispute. November 24 Adopts rules for settling rank and seniority disputes in the Continental Army; authorizes Board of War "to finish the arrangements of the army agreeably to the resolutions of Congress." November 26 Receives New Jersey ratification of Articles of Confederation. November 27 Rejects petition for exempting grain for Bermuda from the embargo. November 28 Responds to Adm. James Gambier's threat to retaliate against American prisoners of war. December 3 Confirms General Philip Schuyler's court-martial acquittal; receives letters recommending secret British agent John Temple. December 5 Endorses Washington's recommendations for suspending preparations for a Canadian invasion; confirms General Charles Lee's court-martial conviction. December 7 Orders Silas Deane to report in writing on "his agency . . . in Europe"; hears testimony in McKean-Thompson dispute. December 9 Receives Henry Laurens' resignation as President of the Continental Congress

December 10 Elects John Jay President of the Continental Congress; endorses Gerard's proposal for encouraging privateering. December 14 Resolves to emit additional $10,000,000 in Continental currency. December 16 Resolves to contract the supply of Continental currency, to accept presidential expenses as a public charge, and to ask the states to raise $15,000,000 in taxes; confirms General Arthur St. Clair's court martial acquittal. December 18 Directs Washington to attend Congress in keeping with his suggestion for "a personal conference." December 22 Hears Silas Deane "read his written information" concerning his agency in Europe. December 23 Continues Silas Deane hearing; continues hearing into McKean-Thompson dispute. December 24 Receives General Washington; continues hearing into McKean-Thompson dispute; accepts General Thompson’s "apology. " December 25 Observes Christmas. December 26 Adopts loan office regulations for exchanging Continental bills. December 29 Adopts Gerard's proposal for protecting American grown masts; appoints three additional Continental Brigadiers. December 31 Continues Silas Deane hearing; adopts additional fiscal resolves.

January 1, 1779 Defers planned Franco-American attack on Canada. January 2 Adopts additional fiscal resolves to curb depreciation. January 5 Receives Gerard's protest against Thomas Paine's published letters concealing supplies from France. January 6 Conducts inquiry into Gerard's charges against Thomas Paine. January 7 Adopts Gerard's charges against Thomas Paine; dismisses Paine from his position as secretary to the Committee for Foreign Affairs. January 8 Receives Henry Laurens' admission that he had informed Thomas Paine of Congress' confidential proceedings against him. January 9 Orders Henry Laurens to submit written statement of his "suspicion of fraudulent proceedings" by Robert Morris. January 11 Receives Henry Laurens' charges against Robert Morris. January 12 Disavows charges published by Thomas Paine concerning supplies received from France. January 14 Resolves to reassure France that the United States "will not conclude either truce or peace . . . without [its] formal consent." January 15 Receives Francis Lewis' statement on Henry Laurens' charges against Robert Morris. January 19 Hears Henry Laurens' explanation concerning his charges against Robert Morris. January 20 Appoints committee to conduct foreign affairs inquiry. January 21 Appoints committee to "examine into principles of the powers of the . . . Committee on Appeals" and the refusal of Pennsylvania to honor the committee's decree in the case of the Active. January 22 Resolves to request Virginia, North Carolina, and the Comte d'Estaing to provide assistance for Georgia and South Carolina. January 23 Adopts resolves to improve recruitment of Continental troops and to augment the authority of the commander in chief. January 26 Appoints committee to investigate Pennsylvania's charges against General Benedict Arnold, Continental commander of Philadelphia. January 28 Debates Gerard's contention that Congress should compensate France for aid rendered by d'Estaing to the southern states, in accordance with article four of the treaty of alliance. January 30 Approves General Washington's request for leave to return to camp. February 1 Debates Pennsylvania complaint against Matthew Clarkson. February 2 Orders reinforcements for South Carolina and Georgia. February 3 Confers with Gerard on supplying French fleet; resolves to emit additional $5 million in Continental currency; resolves to borrow $20 million in loan office certificates. February 5 Resolves to request French aid for South Carolina defense. February 8 Recommends embargo exemptions for relief of Rhode Island and Massachusetts; withdraws request for French aid for South Carolina; discourages French request for provisions for Martinique. February 9 Recommends relief for owners of Portuguese vessel illegally seized by American privateer; augments treasury staff to speed settlement of army accounts. February 11 Exonerates Robert Morris of accusations made by Henry Laurens. February 15 Meets with Gerard on Spanish offer to mediate peace and need to formulate American negotiating demands. February 16 Orders inquiry into Pennsylvania's charges against Benedict Arnold. February 18 Reorganizes Inspector General's Department and Ordnance Department. February 19 Resolves to emit additional $5 million in Continental currency. February 22 Receives William Lee's proposal for a commercial treaty with the United Provinces; Delaware ratifies Articles of Confederation. February 23 Debates negotiating instructions should Spain arrange peace talks with Great Britain. February 25 Accepts resignation of Maj. General Thomas Mifflin; augments defense of the northern frontiers. February 26 Authorizes embargo exemptions for the relief of Rhode Island and Massachusetts. March 1 Debates peace terms (boundaries). March 4 Debates peace terms (boundaries). March 5 Authorizes Washington to negotiate a cartel for a general exchange of prisoners. March 6 Adopts declarations on Continental authority over admiralty appeals. March 9 Urges states to accelerate recruitment and revises bounty provisions. March 10 Debates peace terms (boundaries). March 11 Debates peace terms (status of Nova Scotia); creates corps of engineers. March 15 Debates peace terms (boundaries). March 16 Debates peace terms (boundaries); authorizes reorganization of the corps of waggoners. March 17 Debates peace terms (boundaries). March 19 Adopts peace terms concerning boundaries. March 20 Adopts Fast Day Proclamation. March 22 Debates peace terms (fisheries). March 23 Reorganizes Clothing Department. March 24 Reprimands Matthew Clarkson for affronts to the civil authorities of Pennsylvania; debates peace terms (fisheries and navigation of the Mississippi). March 27 Resolves to report the yeas and nays in the published journals. March 29 Adopts measures for the defense of South Carolina and Georgia. March 30 Debates peace terms (fisheries). March 31 Resolves to publish journals of Congress weekly. April 1 Endorses New York plan for reprisals against the Seneca Indians; resolves to emit additional $5 million in Continental currency. April 2 Adjourns for Good Friday. April 3 Adopts resolutions for restoring harmony with Pennsylvania officials incensed over congressional response to their prosecution of Benedict Arnold. April 6 Opens debate on the recall of American commissioners abroad. April 7 Adopts plan to encourage rebellion in Nova Scotia; debates recall of American commissioners abroad. April 8 Authorizes prisoner exchange in the southern department. April 9 Debates recall of American commissioners abroad. April 13 Endorses plan for creation of a corps of French volunteers in South Carolina. April 14 Reaffirms authority of state officials to issue safe conduct passes. April 15 Debates recall of American commissioners abroad. April 19 Accepts resignation of Major General Philip Schuyler; authorizes additional brigade for Rhode Island defense. April 20 Debates recall of American commissioners abroad. April 21 Debates recall of American commissioners abroad. April 22 Rejects motion to recall Benjamin Franklin. April 26 Debates recall of American commissioners abroad. April 27 Appropriates 2,000 guineas in specie for Washington's secret service. April 30 Debates recall of Arthur Lee. May 1 Debates recall of Arthur Lee. May 3 Rejects motion to recall Arthur Lee (tie vote). May 4 Appoints committee to meet with Delaware Indian delegation. May 5 Resolves to emit additional $10 million in Continental currency. May 6 Observes day of fast. May 7 Denies Bermuda petition for provisions embargo exemption; orders Virginia and North Carolina reinforcements to South Carolina. May 8 Debates peace terms (fisheries). May 10 Authorizes Washington to concert combined Franco-American operations.  May 11 Appoints General Duportail commandant of the corps of engineers. May 12 Debates peace terms (fisheries). May 13 Debates peace terms (fisheries). May 14 Meriwether Smith charges Henry Laurens with injuring the honor of Congress. May 15 Henry Laurens denounces attack by Meriwether Smith. May 17 Directs Indian affairs commissioners (northern department) to consult with Washington on all Indian treaty negotiations. May 18 Authorizes embargo exemption for provisions for Bermuda. May 19 Increases states' 1779 quotas an additional $45 million. May 20 Receives Virginia proposal for ratifying Articles of Confederation by less than unanimous consent; debates recall of Ralph Izard. May 21 Receives Maryland delegate instructions on Articles of Confederation; receives Connecticut delegate instructions on ratifying confederation without the state of Maryland. May 24 Debates Deane-Lee controversy; authorizes retaliation for cruelties committed by British forces against French subjects in Virginia. May 25-26 Confers (by committee) with Delaware Indian delegation. May 26 Allows Pennsylvania President Reed to address Congress on American fiscal crisis; adopts address to the inhabitants of America on meeting finance and manpower quotas. May 27 Debates peace terms (fisheries). May 29 Debates New York proposals for settlement of Vermont issue.  June 1 Resolves to send a committee to Vermont. June 3 Debates peace terms (fisheries). June 4 Resolves to emit additional $10 million. June 5 Adopts plan to fund Beaumarchais' claims. June 7 Adopts vote of confidence in quartermaster and commissary generals (refuses to accept Commissary Jeremiah Wadsworth's resignation); appoints committee to consider powers of foreign consuls. June 8 Recalls Ralph Izard and William Lee, American commissioners abroad. June 10 Debates Arthur Lee's recall. June 11 Resolves to borrow $20 million domestically at 6 percent interest. June 12 Exonerates Dr. John Morgan. June 14 Debates price regulation proposals. June 15 Directs Washington to investigate charges against Dr. William Shippen, Jr.; prepares re quest for supplies from king of France. June 16 Denounces seizure of New York officials by inhabitants of the New Hampshire Grants. June 17 Debates peace terms; reaffirms French alliance provisions prohibiting negotiation of separate peace. June 19 Debates peace terms (fisheries). June 21 Reverses plan to enlist German deserters; de bates financial reform. June 23 Debates financial reform. June 24 Debates peace terms (fisheries). June 25 Debates financial reform. June 28 Rejects quartermaster appeal for relief from state taxes. July 1 Debates peace terms (fisheries). July 2 Sets procedures for exchanging withdrawn emissions of Continental currency. July 6 Approves export of provisions for French fleet; debates peace terms (fisheries). July 7 Debates financial reform. July 9 Orders investigation of commissary and quartermaster purchasing practices. July 12 Confers with French Minister Gerard; receives report from two members of Vermont Committee. July 13 Receives report from other two members of Vermont Committee. July 14 Debates substance of conference with French minister. July 15 Orders retaliation for British mistreatment of naval prisoners. July 16 Receives Arthur Lee's response to charges by Silas Deane. July 17 Resolves to emit additional $15 million; threatens retaliation for British mistreatment of Captain Gustavus Conyngham; debates peace terms (fisheries). July 19 Directs Marine Committee to prepare plan of retaliation for recent raids on Connecticut. July 21 Recommends compensation for Portuguese vessel illegally seized by American privateer. July 22 Debates peace terms (fisheries). July 23 Adopts plan for the protection of Continental property within the states. July 24 Debates peace terms (fisheries). July 26 Commends victors for capture of British post at Stony Point. July 27 Orders Virginia reinforcements to South Carolina. July 28 Debates financial reform. July 29 Debates peace terms (fisheries). July 30 Adopts ordinance for reorganizing the treasury. July 31 Debates peace terms (fisheries). August 2 Exonerates Jean Holker of charges of profiteering, and reaffirms Continental protection for French consuls and other officials. August 3 Debates peace terms (French alliance provision against separate peace). August 5 Debates peace terms (re Spanish subsidy, Florida, and navigation of the Mississippi). August 6 Authorizes payment of Silas Deane's expenses and releases him from obligation to remain in America. August 7 Debates peace terms (re Spanish interests in North America). August 10 Requests North Carolina reinforcements for South Carolina. August 13 Debates instructions for Minister Plenipotentiary to negotiate peace. August 14 Debates instructions for Minister Plenipotentiary to negotiate peace. August 17 Urges states to provide half pay for Continental officers. August 18 Augments pay and allowances for Continental officers. August 21 Requests states to extend provisions embargo to January 1, 1780. August 25 Urges states to lift restrictions on interstate in land trade. August 26 Appoints committee for creating a supreme court for admiralty appeals. August 28 Debates financial reform. August 31 Receives Henry Laurens' complaint against Secretary Thomson for disrespectful behavior. September 1 Resolves that "on no account whatever" will Congress emit more than $200 million Continental currency. September 3 Receives notice that Minister Gerard will return to France. September 4 Observes death of William Henry Drayton. September 7 Receives notification of Spanish entry into the war against Britain; adopts farewell response to Gerard. September 9 Adopts letter of thanks to king of France; debates terms of prospective alliance with Spain. September 10 Issues appeal to states for clothing; debates relations with Spain. September 11 Debates relations with Spain. September 14 Reads memorials of Indiana and Vandalia land companies. September 16 Debates ways and means proposals. September 17 Conducts farewell audience for Gerard; resolves to emit additional $15 million; debates relations with Spain; debates ways and means proposals. September 18 Debates relations with Spain. September 20 Orders military and naval reinforcements for southern department; debates relations with Spain . September 21 Debates ways and means proposals. September 22 Debates New Hampshire Grants claims. September 23 Debates New Hampshire Grants claims, de bates relations with Spain. September 24 Requests authorization from Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and New York to mediate New Hampshire Grants claims; commends victors for attack on Paulus Hook; debates relations with Spain. September 25 Debates relations with Spain and conduct of peace negotiations. September 26 Nominates ministers plenipotentiary to negotiate treaties of peace and of alliance with Spain. September 27 Elects John Jay Minister Plenipotentiary to Spain and John Adams to negotiate peace

September 28 Elects Samuel Huntington, president of The Continental Congress; adopts commissions and instructions for John Adams and John Jay.   October 1 Orders preparation of a plan for reorganizing the conduct of naval affairs. October 2 Requests Vermont claimants to authorize Congress to settle Vermont claims. October 4 Adopts instructions for minister to Spain (John Jay). October 6 Admonishes Benedict Arnold on treatment of Pennsylvania officials. October 7 Calculates and apportions 1780 state fiscal quotas. October 9 Adopts circular letter to the states on meeting fiscal quotas. October 13 Authorizes Arthur Lee to return to America. October 14 Commends John Sullivan for conduct of expedition against the Indians; resolves to emit an additional $5 million; sets day of thanksgiving. October 15 Adopts instructions for minister to Spain; resolves to seek a loan in Holland. October 20 Adopts thanksgiving day proclamation. October 21 Appoints Henry Laurens to negotiate Dutch loan. October 22 Rejects appeal for Continental intervention against state taxation of Continental quartermasters. October 26 Adopts instructions for negotiation of Dutch loan and treaty of amity and commerce. October 28 Creates Board of Admiralty, ending management of naval affairs by congressional committee. October 30 Urges Virginia to reconsider decision to open land office for sale of unappropriated lands. November 1 Appoints Henry Laurens to negotiate Dutch treaty of amity and commerce. November 2-3 Adjourns because of expiration of President Samuel Huntington's credentials as Connecticut delegate. November 5 Notified of evacuation of Rhode Island; appoints committee to plan an executive board to supervise Continental officials. November 8 Requests correspondence files of former presidents of Congress. November 9 Elects Treasury officers. November 10 Orders deployment of three frigates to South Carolina. November 11 Orders reinforcement of southern department; observes funeral of Joseph Hewes. November 13 Rejects resignation of General John Sullivan; approves parole of Generals William Phillips and Baron Riedesel of the Convention Army. November 16 Undertakes care of Spanish prisoners held at New York, rejects Massachusetts' appeal to retain Continental taxes to defray Penobscot expedition costs; recommends that states compel persons to give testimony at Continental courts-martial. November 17 Holds audience with the newly arrived French minister, the chevalier de La Luzerne; resolves to emit an additional $10 million. November 18 Gives General Washington free hand to coordinate operations with the French armed forces. November 19 Recommends state adoption of price regulations. November 23 Resolves to draw bills of exchange to £100,000 sterling each on John Jay and Henry Laurens. November 25 Adopts new regulations for clothing Continental Army; discharges committee for superintending the commissary and quartermaster departments. November 26 Appoints Admiralty commissioners. November 29 Commemorates General Pulaski's death and resolves to emit an additional $10 million; accepts resignation of commissary general Jeremiah Wadsworth. November 30 Appoints committee to confer with Washington at headquarters; accepts resignation of General John Sullivan. December 2 Receives notification of Spanish declaration of war against Britain; appoints Ephraim Blaine commissary general of purchases. December 3 Resolves to move Congress from Philadelphia at the end of April 1780; appoints Admiralty commissioners. December 6 Reinforces armed forces in southern department. December 9 Observes day of thanksgiving. December 15 Recommends that states extend provisions embargo to April 1780. December 16 Authorizes General Benjamin Lincoln to coordinate southern operations with Spanish officers at Havana. December 20-24 Debates proposal to borrow $20 million abroad. December 24 Authorizes use of depositions of witnesses at courts martial in non-capital cases. December 27 Recommends moratorium on granting lands in region of Pennsylvania-Virginia boundary dispute; orders Post Office to institute twice-weekly in place of weekly deliveries. December 28 Authorizes Continental reimbursement of militia expenses incurred defending Connecticut against invasion. December 31 Endorses Board of War plan to employ greater secrecy to reduce procurement expenses. January 3 Postpones decision on selecting a new site for Congress. January 4-8 Debates plan for creating a court of appeals.  

January 8, 1780 Reorganizes Georgia's Continental regiments. January 10 Dismisses Charles Lee, second ranking Continental general; debates plan for reducing the army to curtail expenses. January 12 Sends emergency appeal to the states for provisioning the army; abolishes mustermaster's department. January 13 Adopts new regulations for negotiation of prisoner exchanges. January 14 Recommends that states make provision for guaranteeing the privileges and immunities of French citizens recognized in the Franco-American treaty of amity and commerce. January 15 Creates Court of Appeals in admiralty cases. January 17 Endorses export of grain to French forces by the French agent of marine. January 18 Resolves to print the journals of Congress monthly, but ends practice of printing the yeas and nays. January 20 Orders investigation into the expenses of the staff departments; abolishes barrack master's department. January 22 Elects judges to Court of Appeals. January 24 Adopts new measures for recruitment of Continental troops. January 25 Halts pay of inactive naval officers. January 26 Appoints committee to confer with the French minister on joint Franco-American operations. January 27 Authorizes inflation adjustment in the salaries of Continental officials. January 31 Pledges to wage a vigorous campaign in conjunction with French forces during 1780. February 4-5 Debates Continental Army quotas for 1780. February 9 Sets state quotas and adopts recruitment measures for an army of 35,000 by April 1, 1780. February 11 Affirms commitment to the re-conquest of Georgia. February 12 Confirms sentence in the court-martial of General Benedict Arnold. February 16-24 Debates proposals for a system of in-kind requisitions from the states. February 22 Debates congressional privilege issue arising from the complaint of Elbridge Gerry. February 25 Adopts system of in-kind requisitions from the states. February 28 Postpones decision on selecting a new site for Congress. March 2 Postpones debate on Vermont controversy. March 3 Sets "Day Of Fasting, Humiliation And Prayer." March 4 Commends John Paul Jones and crew of Bonhomme Richard for victory over Serapis. March 8 Orders reinforcements for the southern department. March 13-18 Debates proposals for fiscal reform. March 18 Repudiates Continental dollar, adopting measures for redeeming bills in circulation at the ratio of 40 to 1. March 20 Recommends state revision of legal tender laws. March 21 Postpones debate on Vermont controversy. March 24 Observes Good Friday. March 26 Observes funeral of James Forbes. March 27 Rejects proposals for a new site for Congress; receives plan for reorganizing quartermaster department. March 29-31 Debates proposals for adjusting Continental loan office certificates for inflation. April 1 Debates plan for reorganizing quartermaster department. April 3 Rejects motion to hear Elbridge Gerry appeal. April 4 Authorizes defense of New York frontier at Continental expense. April 6 Resolves to send a committee to confer with Washington at headquarters. April 8 Authorizes partial reimbursement to Massachusetts for Penobscot expedition expenses. April 10 Authorizes depreciation allowances for Continental troops. April 12 Adopts instructions for Committee at Headquarters. April 13 Appoints Committee at Headquarters. April 15 Appoints Joseph Ward commissary general of prisoners. April 17 Rejects proposal to appoint a "resident" at the Court of Versailles. April 18 Authorizes depreciation allowances for holders of Continental loan office certificates; authorizes issuance of commissions to Delaware Indians. April 20 Resolves to draw bills of exchange on John Jay in Spain. April 21 Adopts measures for the relief of prisoners of war. April 24 Adopts appeal to the states to meet fiscal quotas. April 28 Appoints Cyrus Griffin to Court of Appeals, William Denning to Board of Treasury. May 2 Revises commissions, bonds, and instructions for privateers. May 5 Doubles rates of postage. May 10 Adopts regulations for replacing destroyed loan office certificates. May 15 Three Georgia delegates attend, representing the state for the first time in more than a year. May 17 Considers Committee at Headquarters report presented by John Mathews. May 18-20 Debates La Luzerne memorial on Franco American cooperation. May 19 Urges states to remit quota payments immediately. May 20 Urges states to meet troop quotas immediately. May 22 Urges Delaware to extend provisions embargo indefinitely. May 23 Debates Vermont controversy. May 26 Requests states to receive Continental certificates in payment of taxes. May 29 Debates Vermont controversy. May 30 Rescinds Committee at Headquarters instruction on the propriety of reducing the-Continental Army. June 1 Adopts measures for defense of New York and New Hampshire frontiers. June 2 Censures Vermont settlers and pledges final de termination of the Vermont controversy when ever nine "disinterested" states are represented in Congress. June 5 Adopts plans for cooperating with anticipated French forces. June 6 Orders arms for southern defense. June 9 Postpones Vermont inquiry to September 12. June 12 Orders restrictions on the issuance of Continental rations; creates two extra chambers of accounts to facilitate settlement of staff department accounts. June 13 Appoints Horatio Gates to southern command. June 14 Adopts measures for the defense of the southern department. June 15 Issues circular letter to the states to reinforce the appeals of the Committee at Headquarters. June 19 Adopts measures to prevent and punish counterfeiting. June 20 Empowers John Adams to seek Dutch loan. June 21 Reaffirms commitment to Franco-American military cooperation; appoints an agent to transact U.S. affairs in Portugal. June 22 Endorses plan to establish a private bank for provisioning and supplying the Continental Army. June 23 Orders inquiry into the fall of Charleston, S.C.; reaffirms support for Georgia and South Carolina. June 28 Adopts plan for paying depreciation allowances to holders of Continental loan office certificates. July 3 Orders Admiralty Board to implement intelligence gathering plan. July 5-6 Debates plan to reform quartermaster department. July 7 Endorses La Luzerne's request to permit the shipment of provisions to Spanish forces in the West Indies. July 11 Orders publication of Congress' May 1778 resolution requesting that Articles 11 and 12 of the Franco-American treaty of commerce be revoked. July 13 Orders Washington to seek the exchange of General du Portail, chief of engineers. July 15 Reorganizes quartermaster department; continues Nathanael Greene in office as quarter master general. July 17 Receives announcement of arrival of French fleet at Rhode Island. July 19 Opens debate on the court-martial of Dr. William Shippen, Jr., director general of hospitals. July 20 Suspends deputy quartermaster Henry Hollingsworth. July 25 Appoints Charles Pettit assistant quartermaster general. July 26 Orders deployment of Continental frigates to cooperate with French fleet; orders reforms in the department of military stores. July 27 Transfers responsibility for issuing privateer commissions and bonds to the office of the secretary of Congress. August 2 Lifts restrictions on Washington's operational authority; chides Committee at Headquarters. August 3-4 Debates Quartermaster Greene's resignation request. August 5 Appoints Timothy Pickering quartermaster general to succeed Nathanael Greene; orders Washington to confer with French officers to plan the expulsion of the enemy from Georgia and South Carolina. August 7 Instructs Washington on exchanging prisoners of war and on reinforcing the southern department. August 9 Authorizes drawing bills of exchange on Benjamin Franklin for the relief of the southern department. August 11 Dismisses Committee at Headquarters. August 12 Reforms department of military stores; responds to general officers' grievances. August 17 Commends General Rochambeau and the conduct of the French forces. August 18 Confirms court-martial acquittal of William Shippen, Jr. August 22 Orders punishment of abuses in the staff departments. August 23 Adopts regulations for the issuance of certificates in the commissary and quartermaster departments; authorizes drawing additional bills of exchange on Benjamin Franklin. August 24-25 Extends additional benefits to general officers. August 26 Exhorts states to implement Congress' March 18 resolves for exchanging Continental currency. August 29 Appoints committee to plan a "new arrangement of the civil executive departments." August 31 Receives news of General Gates' defeat at Camden, S.C. September 1 Receives informal invitation to trade with Morocco. September 5 Authorizes issuance of loan office certificates to $1 million specie value at 6 percent interest. September 6 Urges states to cede western land claims and Maryland to ratify Articles of Confederation. September 8 Orders reinforcement of southern military department. September 13 Sets salary schedule for the Continental establishment. September 14 Reopens debate on Vermont dispute. September 15 Appoints Abraham Skinner commissary general of prisoners; adopts plan to supply meat to Continental Army. September 19 Convenes evening session to continue Vermont dispute debate. September 21 Approves enlistment of troops for one year in absence of sufficient "recruits enlisted for the war." September 22 Authorizes drawing additional bills of exchange on Benjamin Franklin. September 25 Adopts new plan for the inspecting department, consolidating mustering functions under the inspector general. September 26 Resolves to instruct commanders of ships to observe principles conforming to the Russian declaration on neutral rights. September 27 Postpones Vermont dispute debate. September 28 Resolves to limit presidential terms to one year. September 30 Receives account of the treason of General Benedict Arnold; adopts new plan for the medical department. October 2 Authorizes drawing additional bills of exchange on Franklin and John Jay. October 3 Adopts new establishment for the Continental Army. October 4 Adopts instructions for John Jay on navigation of the Mississippi River and southwestern boundaries. October 6 Elects officers for hospital department. October 10 Adopts Virginia proposal to reimburse state expenses related to cession of western lands and to require that ceded lands "be disposed of for the common benefit of the United States." October 13 Appoints Daniel Morgan brigadier general; creates third chamber of accounts. October 14 Votes memorial for Baron de Kalb; commends various officers and troops for bravery at the battle of Camden. October 16 Receives proceedings of the Hartford convention of New England states. October 17 Adopts letter of instruction for John Jay. October 18 Instructs John Adams on peace negotiations; sets Day Of Prayer And Thanksgiving. October 21 Endorses proposal to receive Cherokee delegation; revises Continental Army establishment. October 23 Receives report on the victory at King's Mountain . October 24 Sends urgent appeal to the states on the present distresses of the army. October 25-31 Debates ways and means proposals. October 30 Confirms Nathanael Greene's appointment to command of the southern department. October 31 Orders cavalry reinforcement to southern department. November 1 Authorizes drawing additional bills of exchange on Benjamin Franklin. November 3 Rewards captors of Major John Andre. November 4 Apportions $6 million specie tax, to be collected chiefly in kind; appoints William Palfrey consul to France. November 7 Authorizes prisoner-of-war exchange. November 9 Adopts letter of appeal to the states on present emergency. November 10 Adopts measures to curtail enemy fraudulent use of American privateer commissions; directs steps for reducing forage expenses. November 13 Commends troops engaged in the victory at King's Mountain November 14 Authorizes capital punishment for persons supplying the enemy with provisions or military stores. November 16 Receives Committee at Headquarters report; confers with Pennsylvania officials on provisions embargo. November 17 Resolves to appeal to France for 25 million livres in aid. November 22 Adopts appeal to the king of France; appoints William Geddes paymaster general. November 23 Rescinds election of William Geddes as paymaster general. November 24 Receives report on treasury inquiry. November 27 Adopts measures for outfitting Continental ships; adopts additional privateer instructions. November 28 Extends half-pay provisions to general officers; instructs Franklin on procuring aid from France and cultivating commerce with Morocco. November 30 Adopts revised commissary regulations. December 1 Adopts statement endorsing Arthur Lee's conduct abroad. December 4 Prohibits unauthorized military purchases; appoints Simeon De Witt geographer to the Continental Army. December 6 Commends Benjamin Tallmadge's troops for Long Island raid; halts removal of Convention Army from Virginia. December 7 Observes Day Of Prayer And Thanksgiving. December 9 Adopts instructions for consul to France, William Palfrey. December 11 Appoints John Laurens "envoy extraordinary" to France. December 15 Resolves to appoint a minister to Russia. December 19 Appoints Francis Dana minister to Russia. December 21 Debates impact of John Laurens' appointment on Benjamin Franklin's mission in France; launches study of the conditions of Henry Laurens' imprisonment. December 22 Appeals to the states to fulfill Continental troop quotas. December 23 Adopts instructions for special envoy to France, John Laurens. December 27 Instructs Benjamin Franklin on John Laurens' mission to France. December 29 Commissions John Adams to negotiate a treaty of amity and commerce with the United Provinces.  

January 3, 1781 Appoints committee to confer with Pennsylvania officials on the mutiny of the Pennsylvania Line. January 5 . Empowers the mutiny committee "to take such measures as may appear necessary to quiet the disturbances"; threatens retaliation for British mistreatment of American prisoners. January 6 Revives committee for the reorganization of the executive departments. January 8 Endorses proposal to receive Delaware Indian delegation. January 9 Recommends prosecution of former clothier general James Mease for "a high abuse of office. " January 10 Authorizes establishment of a permanent office for the department of foreign affairs. January 12 Endorses treasury inquiry report acquitting commissioners of the chambers of accounts. January 15 Adopts new fiscal appeal to the states from New Hampshire to Pennsylvania. January 17 Appoints John Cochran director of the hospital department and John Pierce paymaster general. January 19 Opens debate on fiscal crisis. January 24 Receives report on the mutiny of the Pennsylvania Line. January 31 Receives committee of the whole recommendation for a 5 percent impost. February 2 Rejects Pennsylvania appeal for an emergency pay response for the Pennsylvania Line. February 3 Recommends state action to empower Congress to levy a 5 percent impost. February 5 Commends General Parsons' troops for their attack at Morrisania; defines alien property rights under the Franco-American treaties. February 7 Adopts plan to create departments of finance, war, and marine. February 8 Receives news of General Daniel Morgan's victory at Cowpens, S.C. February 12 Receives Maryland act authorizing ratification of the Articles of Confederation. February 15 Authorizes expenditures for the support of the eastern Indian department; authorizes John Jay to recede from previous instruction insisting on the free navigation of the Mississippi River. February 19 Orders inquiry into the causes of the delay in the shipment of clothing and arms from France. February 20 Orders the reinforcement and resupply of the southern department; appoints Robert Morris Superintendent Of Finance. February 22 Assigns March 1 for completing and ratifying the confederation. February 23 Debates and recommits report on the Hartford economic convention. February 24 Doubles postage rates; adopts plan for ratifying ceremonies . February 27 Commends John Paul Jones for "distinguished bravery and military conduct, particularly . . . over the British ship of war Serapis"; elects Alexander McDougall Secretary Of Marine. February 28 Postpones election of secretary at war to October 1; imposes restrictions on ornate military uniforms and decorations; refers old business to the new Confederation Congress. March 1 Receives New York cession of western land claims; Maryland delegates sign and ratify Articles of Confederation; celebrates completion of the Confederation; Continental Congress and its Articles of Association and Operational Resolutions is replaced with a new constitutional central government, the United States in Congress Assembled as prescribed by the Articles of Confederation.

USCA President Samuel Huntington Silver Medallion

United States in Congress Assembled

March 2 United States in Congress Assembled convenes under the ratified Articles of ConfederationSamuel Huntington, is recognized as the new Constitutional President; Debates rules for congressional representation; appoints committee to revise the rules of Congress. March 3 Orders removal of Convention Army prisoners from Virginia. March 6 Orders preparation of a plan for "carrying into execution" all congressional acts and resolutions. March 7 Orders depreciation allowances for staff department officers. March 9 Commends troops for victory at the battle of Cowpens. March 10-14 Debates Continental finances. March 15 Receives Connecticut act authorizing Congress to levy imposts for a limited time. March 16 Urges states to make Continental bills legal tender; appeals to states to meet fiscal quotas. March 19 Authorizes bills of exchange drawn on Benjamin Franklin in France. March 20 Adopts Fast Day Proclamation; accepts Robert Morris's conditions for serving as Superintendent of Finance. March 22 Urges Connecticut to repeal time limitation from its approval of a Continental impost. March 24 Receives pledge of continued French military support with warning of impending end to financial aid. March 27 Adopts ordinance on the capture and condemnation of prizes. March 28 Receives Board of Admiralty report on the delay of supplies from France. March 30 Rejects Alexander McDougall's terms for accepting appointment as secretary of marine. March 31 Rejects motion to grant Robert Morris removal authority in the office of finance. April 2 Authorizes New York to raise 2 militia regiments at Continental expense. April 3 Orders recall of General Burgoyne from his parole and preparation of a manifesto condemning British treatment of Henry Laurens. April 4 Resolves against paying interest on bills of new emission. April 5 Adopts ordinance for establishing courts of admiralty. April 7 Adopts new instructions regulating privateers. April 8 Convenes in rare Sunday session to prepare against threatened invasion of Delmarva Peninsula. April 10 Orders limitation on bills of exchange drawn on ministers abroad. April 11 Orders establishment of magazines for provisioning French forces to defray a credit of $400,000 drawn for Benjamin Franklin in France. April 14 Commends John Paul Jones. April 16 Reaffirms prohibition against Continental officers holding civil appointments. April 18 Orders circulation to the states of a report on the public debt. April 21 Grants Robert Morris removal authority in the Office of Finance. April 23 Appoints committee to prepare impost ordinance. April 27 Orders immediate steps against drawing bills of exchange on John Jay and Henry Laurens abroad. May 1 Fails to convene quorum. May 3 Observes Fast Day. May 4 Adopts revised congressional rules. May 8 Receives report from "committee of the week," inaugurating new procedure for expediting congressional business; refers visiting Catawba Indian delegation to Board of War. May 14 Receives Robert Morris' acceptance as Superintendent of Finance; adopts "ways and means" measures for defraying costs "of the ensuing campaign." May 16 Authorizes John Jay to sell America (74-gun ship on the Portsmouth stocks) to Spain. May 18 Authorizes General Anthony Wayne to impress provisions. May 21 Receives Robert Morris proposal for establishing a bank. May 26 Approves plan "for establishing a national bank in these United States." May 28 Authorizes John Jay to recede from demand for free navigation of the Mississippi River; considers report on conference with La Luzerne on Austro-Russian mediation offer. May 31 Issues emergency call for troops for the southern department. June 1 Appeals to the states to meet quotas. June 4 Authorizes superintendent of finance to allocate French financial aid. June 7-9 Adopts revised negotiating instructions for minister plenipotentiary; rejects motion to appoint additional peace commissioners . June 11 Resolves to appoint two additional peace commissioners. June 13 Elects John Jay additional commissioner to negotiate peace; adopts letter of thanks to King of France. June 14 Authorizes exchange of John Burgoyne for Henry Laurens; resolves to appoint two additional peace commissioners; elected Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens, and Thomas Jefferson to negotiate peace. June 15 Adopts instructions for ministers plenipotentiary. June 16 Rejects motion for more severe corporal punishment for Continental troops. June 18 Adopts regulations for clothier general's department. June 19 Adopts instructions for Benjamin Franklin and rejects his request to resign. June 23 Directs Robert Morris to expedite launching of America. June 25 Rejects motion for appointing appeals judges "during good behavior." June 26 Appoints John Paul Jones to command America; appoints Francis Dana secretary to the peace commissioners. June 27 Appoints Robert Smith agent at Havana. July 2 Approves General Washington's request for 300 Pennsylvania riflemen. July 4 Observes Independence Day. July 6 Receives President Samuel Huntington's letter of resignation. 

USCA President Thomas McKean Silver Medallion

July 9 Elects Samuel Johnston president of the United States in Congress Assembled. July 10 Elects Thomas McKean president of the United States in Congress Assembled upon Samuel Johnston's declining the offic; instructs Thomas Barclay, vice-consul to France. July 11 Authorizes Robert Morris to negotiate loans in Spain and Portugal. July 12 Revokes John Adams' commission to negotiate commercial treaty with Britain. July 16 Reinstates General Lachlan McIntosh. July 20 Receives report on claims to the New Hampshire Grants. July 23 Endorses creation of a relief fund for South Carolina and Georgia refugees. July 25 Commends General Nathanael Greene. July 26 Appoints committee to confer with General Washington on troop arrangements "for the ensuing year." July 27 Receives plan for a consular convention from the minister of France. July 31 Orders superintendent of finance and a member of the Board of War to headquarters to confer with General Washington; approves appropriation for the support of three Delaware Indian youths at the Princeton college. August 1 Orders preparation of a plan to reform the Post Office. August 3 Reads New York memorial on the New Hampshire Grants. August 7 Requests Connecticut to revoke commissions authorizing the seizure of property on Long Island; authorizes committee to confer with Vermont agents on their claim to independence. August 10 Elects Robert R. Livingston secretary for foreign affairs; rejects motion to cede the United States claim to navigation of the Mississippi. August 14 Authorizes the importation of salt. August 16 Adopts instructions to John Adams for negotiating a Dutch alliance. August 17 Instructs committee to confer with Vermont agents despite credentials dispute. August 20-21 Declares Vermont acceptance of prescribed boundaries as a condition to acceptance of Vermont independence. August 21 Enlarges General Washington's prisoner exchange authority. August 23 Exhorts states to maintain their representation in Congress. August 24 Directs Superintendent Of Finance "to make provision for support of the civil list." August 29 Debates motion to retaliate against the execution of Colonel Isaac Hayne; resolves to appoint an agent of marine to exercise the duties of a secretary of marine. August 31 Authorizes recognition of Philippe de L'Etombe as French consul to the New England states. September 3 Receives account of John Laurens' mission to France. September 4 Directs Washington to investigate British treatment of prisoners. September 5 Orders inquiry into General Robert Howe's southern command. September 7 Recognizes Philippe Letombe's appointment as French consul to New England; appoints Robert Morris agent of marine. September 10 Recognizes Jean Holker's appointment as French consul to mid-Atlantic states; orders New Jersey and Pennsylvania militia call. September 11 Adopts new treasury ordinance. September 12 Places control of U.S. navy under the agent of marine. September 13 Sets Day Of Thanksgiving. September 18 Orders retaliation for execution of Isaac Hayne; plans retaliation for enemy mistreatment of prisoners. September 19 Orders Delaware militia call; appoints treasury officers. September 20 Reorganizes hospital department. September 21 Receives French minister's report on mediation offers and peace overtures. September 24 Appoints William Irvine to Fort Pitt command. September 25 Receives memorial from Spanish agent Rendon; issues reassurance to northern Indians. October 1 Sets salaries for secretaries of war and marine. October 5 Appoints Thomas Barclay consul to France; discharges Delaware and Pennsylvania militia. October 11-12 Debates Yorktown campaign plans. October 16-17 Debates exercise of Continental jurisdiction over claims within Virginia's western lands. October 19 Reforms Post Office department. October 23 Accepts Thomas McKean's resignation as president (to remain until new Congress November 5). October 24 Receives news of Yorktown victory; observes "divine service (suitable to the occasion)" conducted by Chaplain George Duffield. October 26 Adopts thanksgiving proclamation; rejects Virginia motion to curtail committee investigation of land companies' western claims. October 29 Thanks American and French victors at York town; thanks General Nathanael Greene and southern army. October 30 Appoints General Benjamin Lincoln Secretary At War; sets $8 million fiscal quota for 1782. November 1 Endorses General Greene's plans to treat with Cherokee and Chickasaw Indians. November 2 Apportions states' 1782 fiscal quotas; authorizes acceptance of quartermaster certificates in payment of quotas. 

USCA President John Hanson Silver Medallion

November 5 New Congress convenes; elects John Hanson President the United States in Congress Assembled. November 8 Authorizes Board of War to prosecute spies under the articles of war. November 9 Restricts travel of Yorktown prisoners on parole. November 12 Repeals resolve accepting quartermaster certificates in payment of quotas. November 14 Urges states to maintain representation; sets date for hearing Connecticut-Pennsylvania boundary dispute. November 20 Augments authority of secretary of marine. November 23 Recommends that states legislate to punish violations of international law. November 28 Holds audience with General Washington. December 4 Adopts ordinance on "captures on water." December 5 Receives New York protest against congressional resolves on Vermont. December 10 Exhorts states to complete troop quotas. December 11 Calls states to take census "of the white inhabitants thereof." December 13 Observes Day Of Thanksgiving. December 17 Appeals to the states for men and money. December 19 Orders placing supernumerary generals on half pay. December 20 Authorizes exchange of Gov. Thomas Burke. December 31 Adopts ordinance incorporating Bank of North America.  January 2, 1782 Exhorts states to suppress trade with the enemy. January 3 Reforms medical department. January 8 Amends ordinance on captures on water; rejects motion to enlarge peace ultimata. January 9 Authorizes negotiation of consular convention with France. January 10 Reforms inspector general's department. January 17 Investigates suspicious Silas Deane letters on conciliating Britain. January 22 Instructs peace commissioners to communicate informal demands on fisheries and boundaries. January 25 Amends consular convention. January 28 Enlarges duties of Secretary Charles Thomson to relieve president of United States in Congress Assembled. January 29 Advised of diminution of French aid. February 1 Instructs Benjamin Franklin on repayment of Dutch loan obtained for United States by France. February 8 Authorizes Franklin to borrow additional 12 million livres from France. February 11 Authorizes export of tobacco to New York by Yorktown "capitulants"; rejects appeal to permit states to clothe own Continental troops. February 18 Authorizes Washington to negotiate general prisoner exchange. February 20 Seeks authorization to apportion war expenses in contravention of Articles of Confederation quota formula. February 21 Authorizes establishment of a mint. February 22 Reorganizes department of foreign affairs. February 23 Authorizes exchange of Cornwallis for Henry Laurens. February 26 Amends ordinance on captures on water. February 27 Adopts plan for settlement of state accounts. March 1 Sets conditions for recognizing Vermont independence. March 7 Revises rules of Court of Appeals. March 11 Orders settlement of Bon Home Richard prize claims; refers Indian petition to New York. March 15 Drafts fiscal appeal to the states. March 19 dopts Fast Day Proclamation. March 21 Holds audience with General Washington. March 27 Orders study of Continental Army staffing needs. March 30 Adopts measures for curtailing prisoner-of war escapes. April 1 Rejects fiscal quota reduction appeal. April 3-4 Debates Vermont compliance with independent statehood conditions. April 8 Revises paymaster regulations. April 9 Orders submission of comprehensive army returns. April 15 Rejects motion to elect a vice-president upon the disability of the president; elects Daniel Carroll "chairman" during the illness of President Hanson. April 18 Rejects motion to require delegates to disclose conflicts of interest on land claim issues. April 20 Debates Vermont compliance with independent statehood conditions. April 23 Recommends pensions for disabled troops; orders reduction of supernumerary officers. April 29 Endorses Washington's proposals for retaliation against the death of Joshua Huddy. April 30 Endorses John Jay's conduct of negotiations with the court of Madrid. May 1 Warns states of British plans to divide their enemies with proposals of separate peace; debates western land cessions and motion to disclose delegates' conflicts of interest. May 4 Orders measures for the protection of American shipping. May 8 Opposes sending William Carmichael to the court of Portugal. May 13 Holds audience with French minister to celebrate birth of a dauphin. May 14 Denies emissary of Sir Guy Carleton passport to Philadelphia. May 21 Authorizes state authorities to curb trade with the enemy. May 22 Sends delegations to states to solicit compliance with requisitions. May 24 Reviews Superintendent Of Finance report on status of U.S. credit abroad. May 27 Exhorts states to maintain representation in Congress; instructs Francis Dana to delay presenting his credentials to the court of Russia. May 28 Receives French report on peace overtures. May 31 Reaffirms opposition to separate peace negotiations. June 5 Orders study of proposal to enlist German prisoners of war. June 7 Rescinds work-release program for British prisoners of war. June 12 Revises regulations for naval courts-martial. June 14 Endorses proposals for return of South Carolina exiles. June 17 Calls for biannual inspection of the operation of the executive departments. June 20 Adopts Great Seal for the United States in Congress Assembled. June 21 Exhorts states to curb trade with the enemy. June 24-27 Debates proposals for resolution of the Connecticut-Pennsylvania boundary dispute. June 27 Receives report from the congressional delegation to the southern states. June 28 Endorses General Greene's rejection of truce proposal in South Carolina. July 2 Endorses Superintendent Of Finance recommendation against appointing consuls in the West Indies. July 3 Complains against Spanish release of British prisoners of war. July 10 Adopts ordinance regulating distribution of prizes. July 11 Places moratorium on promotion or appointment of Continental officers. July 17 Adopts ordinance to prevent illicit trade with the enemy. July 18 Receives report from the congressional delegation to the northern states; orders measures to stop mail robberies. July 23 Revises hospital department regulations. July 31 Debates recommendation for acceptance of western land cessions as a preliminary to restoring the public credit of the United States. August 1 Reorganizes adjutant general's department. August 5 Receives Robert Morris' funding plan. August 6 Revises John Jay's diplomatic instructions. August 7 Reorganizes Continental Army. August 9 Receives British commissioners' announcement that peace negotiations have begun at Paris. August 12 Authorizes Washington to negotiate prisoner exchange. August 14 Suspends inquiry into General Gates' conduct at Camden. August 15 Rejects move to repeal peace commissioners' instructions to be guided by French court. August 16-20 Debates Massachusetts' petition to include fisheries claim in peace ultimata. August 23 Appoints judges to hear Connecticut-Pennsylvania boundary dispute. August 27 Debates Kentucky statehood petition. August 29 Orders purchase of ship for packet service to Europe. September 3 Orders resumption of postal service to the Carolinas and Georgia; presents ship America to France. September 4 Sets fiscal quota for the immediate payment of interest on the public debt. September 6 Debates proposal to appeal to the states to cede western lands. September 9 Suspends issuance of bills of exchange to pay loan office certificate interest; instructs Washington on prisoner cartel. September 10 Sets state fiscal quotas. September 12 Endorses Robert Aitken's proposal to print an American edition of the Bible. September 14 Authorizes solicitation of $4 million in foreign loans. September 16 Commissions Washington to negotiate prisoner exchange. September 17 Refuses to accept Henry Laurens' resignation as peace commissioner. September 19-20 Debates report that Henry Laurens improperly petitioned parliament while imprisoned. September 24 Receives information from the chevalier de La Luzerne on recent peace maneuvers in Europe. September 28 Adopts plan of a treaty of amity and commerce with Sweden. October 1 Rejects New Jersey plan to retain Continental revenues for the payment of the state's Continental troops. October 3 Reassures France on U.S. commitment to military preparedness and to its no separate peace pledge. October 10 Appeals to Rhode Island and Georgia to adopt impost amendment. October 11 Sets Day Of Thanksgiving And Prayer October 14-15 Debates promotion of general officers. October 16 Sets fiscal quota for 1783; instructs Washington on prisoner exchange negotiations. October 18 Requests Washington to decide fate of Wyoming garrison; sets state fiscal quotas; adopts Post Office ordinance. October 23 Reorganizes quartermaster department. October 28 Adopts supplemental Post Office ordinance; recommends suspension of plans to execute Charles Asgill in retaliation for the death of Joshua Huddy. October 29 Accepts New York's western land cession. November 1 Refers investigation of Alexander Gillon to the Superintendent Of Finance. November 2 Committee on Indian affairs confers with Catawba Indian delegation. 

USCA President Elias Boudinot Silver Medallion

November 4 Convenes new Congress; elects Elias Boudinot President the United States in Congress Assembled. November 7 Orders Washington to free Charles Asgill. November 8 Requests British officials to continue investigation of the death of Joshua Huddy. November 12 Renews appointment of Thomas Jefferson as peace commissioner. November 14 Debates report on Vermont's seizure of New York citizens. November 18 Appoints Thomas Barclay commissioner to settle the accounts of Continental officials abroad. November 19 Adopts new rules for carrying out the reorganization of the Continental Army. November 20 Debates Pennsylvania petitions on providing for the state's public creditors. November 21 Debates salaries of officials abroad. November 25-26 Debates propriety of exchanging Henry Laurens for Earl Cornwallis. November 27 Orders seizure of two Vermonters reported to be in correspondence with the enemy. December 3 Accepts resignation of Secretary For Foreign Affairs. December 4 Grants John Paul Jones' request to serve with French navy. December 5 Censures Vermont officials; appoints appeals court judges. December 6 Directs Superintendent Of Finance to exhort states to comply with fiscal quotas; appoints deputation to go to Rhode Island to secure ratification of impost amendment. December 11 Authorizes hiring out of prisoners of war. December 12 Receives Rhode Island explanation of rejection of impost amendment. December 13 David Howell acknowledges authorship of published letter violating congressional secrecy rules. December 16 Adopts response to Rhode Island's rejection of impost amendment. December 17 Reaffirms determination to send deputation to Rhode Island. December 21 Postpones resignation of secretary for foreign affairs; grants secretary leave of absence. December 24 Amends Post Office ordinance to extend franking privilege. December 25-26 Observes Christmas. December 31 Instructs peace commissioners to seek commercial reciprocity with Britain.

In the summer of 2016, the 1782  Ct vs PA Federal Court Decree manuscript issued under Article IX in the Articles of Confederation, which awarded the disputed lands lying between 41st parallel north and 42nd parallel north to the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania returned to Independence Hall for the first since in 233 years. National Park Ranger Patricia S agreed to hold the manuscript, one of three known, for at picture in the Delegate Assembly room at Independence Hall. - For More information please visit NCHC Partners in the Park 2017  

Pennsylvania vs Connecticut (1782) – An original manuscript recording the first United States Federal Court Decree issued under Article IX in the Articles of Confederation, which awarded the disputed lands lying between 41st parallel north and 42nd parallel north to the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.  The manuscript is written in the hand of John Neilson, the Federal Court Clerk appointed by Congress to record the proceedings, which began in Trenton on November 12th, 1782, and concluded with court’s decision on December 30th, 1782.  The five judges, William Whipple, Welcome Arnold, David Brearley, Cyrus Griffin and William C Houston, decided unanimously that:

This Cause has been well Argued by the learned Council on both sides --
The Court are now to pronounce their Sentence of Judgement. --
We are unanimously of Opinion that the State of Connecticut has no right to the lands in Controversy.

We are also unanimously of Opinion that the Jurisdiction and Preemption of all the Territory lying within the Chester boundary of Pennsylvania and now claimed by the State of Connecticut do of right belong to the State of Pennsylvania.

Trenton 30 Decbr 1782  

Wm Whipple 
Welcome Arnold 
David Brearley 
Cyrus Griffin
Wm C Houston

The one page manuscript is written on hand laid paper that is 7 ¼ x 9 ½ inches and watermarked "J Bassuet” with a verso docket: "Decree of the Court of Coms. 30 Decr 1782."  The two other known   Pennsylvania vs Connecticut 1782 Decree manuscripts are located in the United States National Archives and the Connecticut State Library

January 1 & 2, 1783 Thanks France for military aid and naval protection. January 3 Records Trenton trial decree in Connecticut Pennsylvania boundary dispute (first settlement of interstate dispute under Articles of Confederation) January 6 Receives army petition on pay arrears; appoints committees to inquire into the management of the executive departments. January 7 Debates setting exchange rate for redeeming old Continental emissions. January 10 Learns that Superintendent Of Finance has over drawn bills of exchange on "the known funds procured in Europe"; army deputation meets with grand committee on Continental Army grievances. January 13 Debates expediency of negotiating additional foreign loans. January 14 Acquiesces in Rhode Island delegates' request to share intelligence from abroad with state's officials; debates land valuation formula in grand committee. January 17 Thanks General Greene and the southern army; declares inexpediency of seeking additional foreign loans. January 21 Receives U.S.-Dutch treaty negotiated by John Adams. January 22 Ratifies Franco-American contract negotiated by Benjamin Franklin. January 23 Ratifies Dutch treaty. January 24 Orders investigation of abuses of flag of truce by the Amazon; rejects report recommending establishment of a Library for Congress. January 25 Directs the Superintendent Of Finance to pay the Continental Army. January 27-31 Debates proposals for funding the public debt. January 30 Rejects Pennsylvania proposal to pay interest due on Continental securities owned by its own citizens. February 4 Receives Vermont remonstrance against threatened Continental intervention. February 4-8 Debates proposals for funding the public debt and setting state quotas. February 10-14 Debates proposals for funding the public debt and setting state quotas. February 17 Adopts plan to appoint commissioners for estimating land values and setting state quotas. February 18 Orders superintendent of finance to estimate the public debt, and each executive department to report a comprehensive civil list. February 21 Exhorts states to maintain their representation in Congress. February 25-28 Debates proposals for commutation of Continental officers' half pay. March 4 Amends ordinance "for establishing courts for the trial of piracies." March 6-7 Receives report on funding the public debt. March 10 Debates commutation of Continental officers' half pay. March 11 Debates revenue proposals. March 12 Receives the Preliminary Treaty Of Peace. March 12-15 Reads treaty and foreign despatches. March 17 Receives Washington's report on the army crisis at Newburgh. March 18 Debates report on the public credit. March 19 Debates proposal to censure ministers for ignoring negotiating instructions. March 20-21 Debates report on the public credit. March 22 Adopts resolve to commute Continental officers' half pay for life to full pay for five years. March 24 Recalls all Continental ships on cruise. March 27-28 Debates report on the public credit. March 29 Rejects proposal for increasing congressional oversight of the office of finance. March 31 Renews committee for overseeing the office of finance. April 1 Recommends that states revise formula for setting Continental quotas; learns of call for an economic convention at Hartford; receives invitation to locate Continental capital in Kingston, N.Y. April 4 Orders suspension of enlistments in Continental Army; debates report on the public credit. April 7 Revises Continental quotas. April 11 Adopts Cease-Fire Proclamation. April 15 Ratifies Preliminary Treaty Of Peace. April 17 Orders sale of Continental horses. April 18 Asks states for authority to levy revenue duties. April 23 Authorizes Washington to discharge Continental troops. April 24 Directs Washington to confer with General Guy Carleton on the evacuation of New York. April 26 Adopts Address to the States on new revenue plan. April 28 Requests Robert Morris to continue as Superintendent Of Finance until the reduction of the Continental Army. April 30 Rejects motion to hold debates in public. May 1 Directs Secretary At War to negotiate cease-fire with hostile Indian nations; authorizes American ministers to negotiate treaty of commerce with Great Britain. May 2 Appeals to states for collection of taxes for payment of discharged troops; recommends that states adopt copyright laws for protection of authors. May 9 Asks states to convene assemblies to adopt fiscal recommendations. May 15 Revises rules to appoint committees by secret ballot. May 19-20 Debates treaty article on restitution of confiscated loyalist property. May 22 Instructs Francis Dana on negotiating treaty with Russia. May 26 Instructs American ministers on peace terms concerning evacuation of American posts and carrying off of American slaves; instructs Washington on furloughing Continental troops. May 29-30 Debates treaty articles on British debts and loyalist property. June 2 Appoints Oliver Pollock commercial agent to Cuba. June 4 Debates Virginia cession of western land claims; refers offers to locate the Continental capital at Kingston, N.Y., or Annapolis, Md., to the states (to be debated October 6). June 10 Receives report of the mutiny of a troop of Virginia dragoons. June 11 Directs furlough of Delaware, Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Virginia troops. June 12 Instructs American ministers on avoiding treaties of armed neutrality. June 13 Receives "mutinous memorial" from Continental Army sergeants. June 17 Commends the conduct of business in the office of finance. June 19 Receives notice of the mutiny of Continental troops at Carlisle; appoints committee to confer with Pennsylvania officials on the mutiny. June 20 Debates Virginia cession of western land claims. June 21 Confronts mutineers of the Pennsylvania Line; authorizes president to reconvene Congress at Trenton or Princeton, NJ. June 21 President Boudinot issues proclamation reconvening Congress at Princeton.

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